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Record 9/959

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2Oral History Interview with Elwyn J. "Jack" Nelson & Virginia Nelson by Brad Larson for the Oshkosh World War II project. A transcript is on a computer file in the archives. Jack and Virginia Nelson Interview With Brad Larson on October 18, 2001 BL: It's October 18th, 2001 and I'm Brad Larson and I'm sitting in my office with Jack and Virginia Nelson. So, are you folks ready? VN: Guess so. JN: Hello. BL: Well, you know the way I like to start this out is if we could just start out with your date of birth and then tell me what you were doing in 1941 and where you were living, what you were doing. JN: Okay, I was born on the 21st of December 1922 and uh, on December 7th in 1941, I was in college…In a college dormitory at the time, it was about seven in the evening when the radios that were on in the dorm began a saga of Pearl Harbor and what was happening. I realized at that time, I'm a sophomore, but yet this is going to involve everyone in the United States, and how that's going to affect my life, I'm not just sure. It was quite an experience in a men's dorm exclusively, they were all out in the halls and in the rooms talking things over and "What's this all about", and "Can this really be true that someone would attack Pearl Harbor and our fleet?" BL: What about you? VN: I was born on February 14th 1924, and I was a freshman at the University and as it was a Sunday afternoon, I was living…. No, I don't think I was living in a Sorority house, I know I wasn't, we were having some kind of a coffee hour or something and the news came over and we were all just kind of in shock and like Jack said, we wondered, "How was this going to affect out lives?" I knew it would affect Jack quite a bit, we were already dating at that time. We didn't know what was going to happen. BL: Had either of you followed the war news in Europe, prior to Pearl Harbor? Did you find it of interest; something that you thought might affect you eventually? JN: Yes. I didn't have the slightest clue as to how it might happen but I was appalled at the lack of, uh…. Of resolve on the part of Neville Chamberlain, for instance, who gave into all of Hitler's requests and uh…. Went back saying, "Everything is fine, it's going to be great", but uh…. That didn't stop Hitler he moved right across Europe and somehow it seemed as though something should be done but yet, in this country, in America there was a group called American Firsters, who were flying around saying "Well that's their problem over in Europe. We're not going to get involved. This nation doesn't need to get involved over there!" They made a lot of statements to that effect and of course, you began to wonder where do we really fit in this thing. This is like 1938, and 39 and of course at that time I was still in high school and wondering just where this would all lead, going to lead on a global basis because it sure put Europe in an unhappy situation. BL: What about Japan, did you follow very much what was happening in China? JN: The only thing that seemed to be different was I can recall statements of tremendous amounts of scrap iron and timber lumber, things of that sort and ships…Japanese ships were coming to the West Coast and hauling away all they could get their hands on, they were buying things of all sorts. Of course, it didn't register with me that this was going to be a part of it. BL: How bout you Virginia? VN: Being in high school too, I remember reading the news and listening to it and wondering what was going to happen. I think I was just too young and naive at that point to think too seriously about it. My dad was probably involved but he wasn't one to discuss things. I know he didn't want to worry us girls so I think he didn't talk about it either. He was that kind of a dad; he didn't want to worry us about things. Which I think was rather common in those days. BL: Okay, so the attack happens; now tell me, did you enlist or were you drafted? JN: Oh, I enlisted. I was in school as I told you and I heard that the Navy had a program for those who were in college, that you could enlist in V-7it was called. I went down in Oshkosh and tried to enlist, this was in the summer of "42" and, uh they rejected me because they said I wasn't just exactly the physical specimen they were looking for. But I talked to my good friend who lived in Milwaukee and he had enlisted down at the Federal Building in Milwaukee and he said, "Boy, you ought to go down there and talk to em." So I did, I jumped on a train and went down to Milwaukee and went down to the Federal Building and talked to the Navy recruiter about this V-7 program and he looked me all over and called the doctor in and he pounded on me and decided well, maybe they'd take me. So I was enlisted in September 10th, 1942. BL: How did you pick the Navy? JN: Pardon, sir? BL: How did you pick the Navy? JN: Well, I think the Navy and the water and boats have always been a part of my life from the time I was a kid and I built my first sailboat and I'm still sailing today with a different boat. The Navy and the sea has always been something that attracted me and I thought that this would be a great spot to go. BL: Was there pressure among your peer group to enlist? Were most of your friends enlisted? JN: Yes, I think almost all of our friends, uh…The man who wound up as best man in our wedding was also enlisted, in the same program. He was attending the University of Minnesota, and I think other men felt the same thing, especially if they were in college. The agreement was, "You can stay in school until we need you and then we'll call you up and place you somewhere in the program." That looked to me like the best out and in spring of 1943 they decided it was time to change the program to V-12 and since I was in engineering they said, "Fine but we're going to go to school around the clock, that is three semesters a year, so you can graduate early. Which I did in 44, February and then headed out, I was assigned to the Navy CB's because my degree was in civil engineering. They had a program that they'd just instituted; in fact, we were the first class of young civil engineering graduates. They were some other mechanical engineers, but most civil that were sent to Camp Perry, Virginia, and there we went through boot camp and eventually were commissioned and sent to advanced training in Rhode Island. By the end of summer we were on out way to our assignments overseas. So that's how it all started, uh…. For me it was most fortunate I was able to finish my degree. Many of the people in that V-12 program weren't able to do that because they were shifted from one school to another assigned in this V-12 Navy program, which the University of Wisconsin, Madison had a big program, they were training all kinds of Army and Navy personnel. But it was a good experience. BL: Did you have any family or friends uh, Jack, close friends, who were enlisted or were drafted? VN: Yes I had a cousin, who went to Canada, before we were involved in the war. That would have been before December 7th "41" and he went to Canada and enlisted in the Air Force and then when the United States entered the war he went to England, then he was in England and transferred over to the U.S. Air Force. He happened to be, he was a pilot, he happened to be in that big raid on Shwienfurt, Germany, I don't remember the date but it was a tremendous airstrike with, I think thousands of planes and a lot of them were shot down. His plane was shot at and when he got back to England, he was the only one left alive in the plane. That affected him all his life. He couldn't hold a job for real long but he got a lot of help, especially from the disabled American Veterans and he married and had a family and he's still alive, he's eighty-two years old now. It did affect him very much. He was able to tell his story to the University of Wisconsin. When you were talking about telling young people about the war, some of the professors there had him come to their class and tell about it. My father was drafted by the government, he worked for the public service here and he was loaned to the government for a dollar a year, they called them dollar a year men, and they went to Washington and he worked with electric rates. So we all moved to Washington D.C. and that was a change in my life. BL: When was that? VN: That was in um, "42" I think, the summer of "42" and that was only for a year and then we came back. Then that's when I worked at Wisconsin Axle during the summer. BL: What did you do there? VN: We were called inventory checkers. They just needed somebody to go around and check their inventory, they'd find gears or ball bearings or different machine parts that had been left stacked in some shelves and we were supposed to keep track of those things. There were about four or five of us girls who did that. BL: What did they make during the war, do you remember? VN: It was mostly gears that type of thing. BL: How did you feel about that job? Did you feel that it was part of a war effort? Do you recall if you had any thoughts about that? VN: No, I don't think I did. It was something that, well, I had to have a job and this came up and I decided it would be interesting to do. No, I don't think I did connect it with the war effort. BL: Do you remember what your rate of pay was? VN: Yes, I got twenty-five dollars a week. BL: Do you remember if that was considered to be good? VN: Yes, it was very good. BL: Well Jack, now what happened to you? You had finished your training and you are ready to be sent overseas, you got your orders, what happened? JN: Well, I should tell you too that the Navy CB's are the construction battalions, the initials CB was changed by Walt Disney to SEA BEE. I got assigned as a replacement officer and shipped out of San Francisco on a Dutch Freighter along with…There were just fifty officer personnel on board. It was a small ship and she was sailing all alone. Got about a day out and both the main generating system and the auxiliary generating system were starting to fail and we turned around and went to San Francisco for four days and repaired that and then we set out once more. We were headed for Australia but they sidetracked us to New Guinea and said, "That's where you're goin, you're goin' to the new Seventh Fleet Base", which is in the northern part of New Guinea at Hollandia. From there I got assigned to the 104th Navy CB battalion in the Philippines and that was in early "45" and I stayed there with that battalion, we were working in Tek lo ban building several things for the Navy: Post office, fleet recreation center, barracks, roads. We furnished transportation because we were on one Island and Tek lo Ban was on Leyte on the other side and uh…A lot of several types of work, we had a crushing plant for coral that they were using for roads, and we found we could have better food if we'd trade a truckload of crushed coral to the army, who seemed to have a lot of food at that time for some better refrigerated stuff or eggs that were only about ten twelve months old, so that we could have something to eat except powdered eggs and canned wieners that came from I don't know where. Actually, SPAM was the best meat that we had. But it was a great experience, we didn't meet any combat, we had Jap aircraft flying over at night they were still bombing the airfield across the way on Leyte. We were watching the movies on a screen made of a white sheet on two posts, with the Navy guys sitting on one side and the Philippinos on the other side watching it backwards, and we'd have to turn off all the lights and wait till the planes went over and everything quieted down. Maybe they flew back over us on the way back from where they were goin', I don't know, and then we could start the movie again. But it was quite an experience. BL: It sounds like you did have some entertainment. Were you ever entertained by USO people? JN: Uh…I can't recall. We were sitting on an Island of Saamar across from Leyte and we were kind of isolated over there. There really wasn't much that would come for a battalion of only a thousand men. I seem to recall some kind of show or entertainment when we were in New Guinea or Hollandia and that was a big base with lots of people there up in the mountains. I think we did there but that was the only time I ever saw any. BL: Well some of the stories that people have related to me is that they are in out of the way places and by gully, they meet somebody from Oshkosh, did that ever happen to you? JN: Ahh, we did meet, I met actually when the war ended and we were reassigned to another battalion or another Navy activity, I met some of the folks that….We trained together in mid-shipman school and also a friend of mine that lives on Point Comfort showed up in the area, I can't even remember how I found that out, but I went and picked him up on the end of the bay there in Samaar and we had a good time one evening. First it's kind of hard to find out where this person is, you've got to get some idea from his fleet post office number and then see if your post office can tell you where are they right now. That kind of information was pretty well secretive, at least I didn't have a whole bunch of success finding out except by word of mouth. VN: Then you met John Conrad through your mom. JN: Ah, yeah. John Conrad was a young man from this city who was with the Public Service for a time but he was in the Army and I think through my folks telling his folks where I was and he happened to be in that same area. He came by one day, showed up on Guam where we were staying at the time, and we had a great time. His Army Unit had a lot of clothing, which ah, my clothes were getting pretty shabby at that point in time, cuz we didn't have a whole bunch in our battalion in 104 and then when I got shifted over to the thirtieth, oh boy, it just seemed that they didn't have much of anything in the way of clothing. So John fitted me up with skivvies and shirts and khaki pants and all that good stuff. I really needed some combat boots, which we didn't have we just had those Boondockers, we called them or field shoes. He was a great guy too, John a tremendous individual. Outside of that, I had one other fella who was with the Boy Scout Council here in Oshkosh, Ernie Schmidt, another real terrific man, and we tried to get together, but I don't think we ever made it. I had a way of telling the folks where I was cuz they had two little maps and uh, when I'd write a letter home, where ever on that map I was I would just make a small circle looking like a period on a sentence or something like that. Then they could put that letter that I wrote em over their map at home and punch a hole through there and see where I was at the time. That seemed to work pretty good. BL: There's a lot of ingenious ways to get around the censor. Now you knew Jack at the time. VN: Oh yes. BL: Were you writing back and forth? VN: Oh yes, all the time. BL: How often did you write? VN: Oh, several times a week. And he wrote as often as he could. We kept up a good correspondence. BL: I think a lot of people would find that unusual. Because we're not letter writers like we used to. VN: We use the telephone. BL: That's right. Were you at, on the Philippines when you heard the news that the war had ended? JN: Oh yes. That was quite a celebration. Ah, we had a good share of the Seventh Fleet out in that bay and they immediately erupted with all the pyrotechnics that they had. It was just, it was the biggest fireworks display I think I ever saw in my life. 'Cause the whole harbor, and this is the harbor is probably I would guess 30 miles long, maybe longer. Yeah I think it was 50 miles long. And it was loaded with everything from battleships to assault ships and so on. And then our battalion erupted too. The rifles came out and the bullets were flying up in the air all over the place and it was kind of a no man's land wherever you were. That was in August 12th of '45. And immediately all the hidden stashed away beer and ah, liquor and whatever was available came out and the party started and people called home at that point in time. Fortunately nobody got hurt. Ah, but it was quite a celebration. BL: What did you think of the atom bomb? JN: Well, we had heard that they had dropped an atom bomb. 'Course, at that point in time, 'what is an atom bomb' other than it is a tremendous type of explosive that was used. And at that time, it didn't register other than it brought about the end of the war. And I thought this was good. This brought the thing to an end. I see today that ah, what it did was probably saved my life because the battalion I joined was made up of journeyman construction men who were probably anywhere from 30 to 50 or 60 years old. And so were all our officers except myself and one other young officer there who had also trained together, we did. We'd have been reassigned to another battalion to move into Japan. As it was the assignment was when the war ended, we were going to go to China to build an airbase for the 3rd Marine Airwing. And assigned to that area. And we did. We loaded four ah, big ships and a couple of LST's with brand new cranes and bulldozers and compressors and compactors and you name it. We had a whole LST load of cement for concrete. We had reinforcing steel. We had everything we needed. Build a [ ]. But when I was up in China with the skipper, and when we walked into the big hotel where the 3rd Marine Division headquarters was, and talked to ah, the colonel in charge, he with a certain number of ex, expletives wanted to know what we were doing up there because this whole thing had been cancelled. So we turned around, put all our equipment on the beach; as fast as we unloaded it, the Chinese stole it. And ah, went back to Guam. So, but I see that, that weapon, in spite of the devastation that was done and that's a tragedy, a real tragedy. But I don't think the Japanese would have given up short of something like that. And my outlook on it, as I look at it today, might be selfish but on the other hand, there were hundreds of thousands of other young men of my age that would have been asked to go in there and fight their way all across the island of Japan. VN: And a lot more Japanese would have been killed too. If there was an invasion. BL: What do you remember about that bomb? VN: Well, I happened to live in Los Angeles. I graduated and went off there to work. For the Camp Fire Girls. And ah, so I was there when the war ended. And I don't, I don't recall what I thought about the atom bomb at that time. I think we were just, we were just so happy that the war had ended, and I don't think that we were given a lot of information. Either that or I don't remember it 'cause it's a long time ago. But that was a big celebration too in downtown Los Angeles as you can imagine. Like a ticker tape parade. That was a happy time and of course I was just waiting for Jack to come home. BL: Well, a lot of people told me they had no idea what an atom bomb was. JN: That's right. VN: Never heard about it. JN: Sure. VN: Well it was kept very secret. No, I don't think they ever told anybody they were going to do it. Remember that project was very hush, hush. Until all of a sudden it happened and I don't think we knew until a month afterwards. Really what the extent of the damage was. You know news today is instantaneous. But it wasn't sixty years ago. BL: What was it like in Oshkosh during the war? How did it, how did the war change what was happening in town? VN: I was not in Oshkosh. I was at school most of the time except for those summers when I worked at the Axle and the one summer when we were in Washington, D.C., and there I worked for the Red Cross and did things like that. And at school we had little things that we did. We'd go out to ah, Truax Field and visit with the soldiers. So I didn't spend a lot of time in Oshkosh. So I wasn't aware of how it was changed here. At school it was changed of course because instead of college boys, we had soldiers and sailors and not a lot of boys in our classes. And the girls took over committees and so on that would be going on, you know at school. BL: Do you ever remember things like gold star flags? VN: Oh yes. There were a lot of those. And blue ones for those who were in the service. BL: Did everyone know what that meant? VN: Yes. BL: Did you know anyone personally that lost a loved one? VN: Yes. I have a friend who lost a brother. But fortunately no, not too many. We were very fortunate. BL: How about you Jack? JN: Well, I lost a good friend. He was in our church. He was in the field artillery in Italy up in the mountains and he was killed there. Shelling. Frederich Reimers. And ah, I can't think of anyone that close to me in the group that we had fun with in high school. VN: I think we found out more later when we went back to reunions and son on about people that we hadn't kept in touch with. You know, after we had graduated from high school. Then we'd find out about that. BL: Today, sixty years later, is there anything that might bring back a memory? For example maybe there's a favorite song you might hear? VN: Oh, yes. Especially music. BL: Why? VN: Well of course that was the 'big band' era. And so, whenever I hear those big band sounds, I think of that time. BL: Any particular song that's your favorite? VN: Oh, Glenn Miller music mostly. We liked the "One O'clock Jump." We liked to dance. And all those Glenn Miller songs. We always go to the Glenn Miller concert when it comes to the Grand. And I get tears in my eyes when I hear some of those songs. Especially the ballads. "Moonlight Serenade." Oh and then there was, "There'll be bluebirds over the white cliffs of Dover." And "I'll be Seeing You." Things like that, that makes you think of the war. BL: Jack, same thing for you? JN: For me it was the music of Irving Berlin too as well as Glenn Miller. "American Patrol" was one that really stirs my hackles when I listen to that. But Irving Berlin had a lot of great music that he put out too. And then our ah, our friends, the two brothers that wrote the "Rhapsody in Blue." VN: Oh, the Gershwins. JN: Gershwins, yes. Ah, I think somewhere on a ship I saw that movie. When we were riding, we went from one place to another, didn't fly like they do now. You get on a ship and ride on everything from an LCI to a, a Victory Ship, to a oil tanker, to ah whatever they put you on. That's the way we got from one place to another. Even a P.T. boat I had a ride in when I went up to ah, the other end of the bay. BL: That kind of brings up two questions that I have. You mentioned movies. Did either of you watch movies very much during the war? VN: Oh yes. That was our only entertainment. You know there was no TV. So we'd go to movies very often. But the movies back then were mostly entertainment types to lift your spirits . They were, I suppose you might call em today - fluff. But ah, they made you feel good. Some were serious but there weren't any deep psychological things and no horror stuff that they have today. BL: I'm and old movie buff. Do you remember any movies of the war years that are very vivid in your memory? I know you really gotta dig here. I know that probably but... VN: I remember "Laura." Is that the name of the movie? I know the song is called, "Laura." Forgotten. No I can't really remember the names of them. I know we'd go to a lot of them but I don't remember any war movies, do you? JN: Oh yeah. The one I remember is the one called, "The Fighting SeaBees." VN: But that was after the war. JN: No, we watched that one in the Philippine Islands. We were sittin there on log stumps to watch this thing and when they'd show something that was a little too elaborate and too fancy for the SeaBees, the whole gang of people sittin there watching would hoot and yell and.... VN: I remember seeing that one too. And then I think we liked to watch World War II movies like "Tora, Tora, Tora." Or "Battle of Midway." And "The Longest Day." JN: But that's not from the '40's. VN: They were after the war. BL: I'm going to check my tape here and then I'll have another question for you. Did either of you ever think that the United States would lose the war? VN: No. JN: No. BL: Not even in the beginning? JN: No. BL: Why not? JN: Well, because it was a complete resolve on the part of every citizen. I can remember before I ever was called to active duty, that where the present jail is, the city jail, that was an open corner parking lot. And there was a pile of aluminum pots and pans that the people of Oshkosh brought down out of their kitchens and pantries and threw em on the pile so it could be melted down for aluminum which was badly needed at that time. It was just no question. This country had a resolve and the feeling of the citizens was that, "I've got a duty to perform and I'd better get at it now. Not tomorrow or the next day, but I better do something because every one - it was going to be an American that was going to be involved in this." And we were all Americans at that time; there was no other ethnic names tied onto the word 'American'. Everyone was an American. And I know that the army didn't treat, we find out now, the blacks in the manner that they should, ah. That was something that had to come later in the, in the ah social program of this country. But there was no hesitancy on the part of anyone ah, but what he had to do [ ] American Indians were helpful in their Navajo or whatever they could speak helping the Marine Corps. The Japanese were treated very badly. That's a tragedy but again it was a scare on the West Coast because ah, we were told that if the Japanese had pressed the Pearl Harbor success, they could have waded right in and the United States was prepared to start defending from the Rocky Mountain range. Give em the West Coast. Well there weren't guns, there weren't ammunition. This country was really without a defense department and mechanism. To protect us. BL: But you Virginia, did you ever doubt we would win? VL: No. I, I really had no doubt about that. BL: Was there any conversation among your family and friends about that? VL: I don't remember that at all. I think we just felt confident... I think that living in the Midwest maybe isolated us a little bit. Because if we'd lived out on the West Coast when that, when Pearl Harbor happened, I think then we might have been a little afraid. I don't think, I don't think we ever felt we were threatened on the East Coast by Germany. But ah, no I think we just knew we were gonna do it. I've read books since then of how tremendous that switchover was from regular manufacturing to the war effort. You know they just, it just almost happened overnight and it was amazing. I think when you go to the EAA and see the you know, model of the aircraft building, that's fun to go to and that brings back memories too. Of what happened during those years. BL: So did you get a sense that everybody was working together? JN: Definitely. VN: Very much so. BL: Even children, would you say? VN: Oh yes, you know they would collect string and aluminum foil and things like that. And then the, we also would knit things. Knit sox, roll bandages, little things like that. BL: How about when you were overseas, Jack. Did you ever get any indication what was happening back home, on the home front? As far as production . Did you have enough goods, could you see enough equipment around you? JN: Oh yeah. We had, we had plenty of good machinery ah, including all the construction stuff and the tools. But the only thing, we had some World War I rifles with a new sight on them. For protection. But we didn't have mortars and we had ah machine guns of various kinds. But that was it as far as the battalion's ah, military combat capability. It wasn't very great. We could have been overrun without a lot of trouble. Although they were a fightin bunch. Ah, they were impressive. Ah, those people in that battalion, there just wasn't anything that they couldn't do. All you had to do was describe it. And there was somebody in that organization of 1100 men that knew how to do that. And he would figure a way to get it done. Amazing. BL: I find it so impressive. I find that just incredible. So you had something somebody told you that needed to be, to get it done, and you got it done. VN: That's why the Seabees were called the "can do" people. BL: Oh really? VN: That was the motto, "Can Do." JN: We had a, the army had a little coastal ship that they were using. It must have been 120-30-40 feet long. Something like that. But the propellor'd been damaged where they'd run it aground or over a shoal, somewhere. And they had located another propeller but they couldn't get it off the propeller shaft so they came to the battalion and said that they needed help. "Have you got any way of getting this propeller off the ship so that we can put the new one on? "Oh, sure." So they sent couple or three demolition experts out there with some dynamite and they packed that thing around and gave it a blast and popped the propeller right off of the shaft so they could put the new one on. Well, I mean, like it says, "You name it, we can do it." BL: With hindsight, as you both think about the war - maybe you don't think about it very much or maybe you do. But what kind of memories come back? Do you ever think about, do you ever reminisce among yourselves? VN: Mm. Not a lot. JN: We don't talk about it really. Ah, unless some incident reminds me of something that ah. We talk about something funny here, something that happened that you remember it. We don't forget those things. They're like any other memories. They're in your head and they stay there. Ah, but it was an experience ah, I don't think I'd want to go through all of that again. But I'm sure not sorry that I was there. And its been, its a part - I think that anyone in that whole war effort who did their part in the thing has a feeling of satisfaction that, "I was confronted with this need and I did something about it." Maybe I wasn't there at the battle front, shooting down several airplanes, but I went where they sent me and I did what they asked me to do. And I learned from it a lot has come out of that experience. The relationships that develop. We've got some permanent friends in the Philippine Islands as a result of some experiences that I had. I won't take your time to tell what that all brought about but when you're presented with something in life, and you feel the need to do something about it and then you do, you're happy about it and usually it brings about other new experiences and new happiness' that are brought about as you pursue those things. VN: Well, we never thought about protesting anything. You just, this was something that happened and you were going to do something about it. We didn't have much choice but that was the time we found ourselves in and we were gonna take care of things. BL: And I think that's a good way to end it, excuse me. I think that's a good way to end it unless either of you have anything more you want to add. JN: No. I'm proud of my country. Ah, nobody's perfect and neither is our country but it is truly a leader and if people will stand up and realize that it is a country worth serving and trying to help and trying to correct the problem. And to feel as servicemen do, who have been there, done that, when they see the American flag, that just lights up something inside that I can't describe to you. But that says, "That's my country." I served my country. I love that flag because it represents a part of me and my dad and mother and my relatives and other people and friends and neighbors and so on, we're all represented by that flag. And it's just like the phrase was coined, "It's a grand old flag." VN: It's a kind of a family thing too. Jack's dad was in World War I. My father almost went overseas. He was in the navy. Didn't quite make it. And then Jack was in World War II and our son was in Viet Nam. He happened to be in the Sea bees too. Which was fortunate for him because it's not a combat unit. Ah, so we just feel that it, if something happens to our country, it's up to us to help out, to do something. That's about it. And then after, I think after the war, you can turn that mike off. {First side of tape ends here. There is sound on second side but it is unintelligible.}
Oral History Interview with Elwyn J. "Jack" Nelson & Virginia Nelson -WORLD WAR II -Copyright Oshkosh Public Museum
Elwyn J. "Jack" & Virginia Nel

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